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How translation is adapted to plant characteristics?

Translation is the fundamental process that allows the synthesis of proteins from the genetic information contained in the RNA. This process, which is an essential axis in the dogma of molecular biology, is carried out by a large number of proteins (generally highly conserved) that constitute the translation machinery. Translation requires a large amount of energy, therefore, this process is highly regulated to inhibit translation and to minimize energy use under limiting metabolic conditions.

Plants present distinctive characteristics compared to other eukaryotic organisms. Among other aspects, plants are photosynthetic beings that generate energy in the presence of light. In addition, plants show specific developmental programs and are sessile organisms anchored to the ground. This prevents plants from hiding and escaping from adverse environmental conditions.

In this article, the researcher Mar Castellano from the Center for Plant Biotechnology and Genomics (CBGP-UPM / INIA, CSIC) in collaboration with Dr. Catherina Merchante (IHSM-UMA-CSIC) reveal, through the in-depth analysis of the information derived from mutants related to translation, some of the peculiarities of the translation machinery and of translation regulation that allow plants to adapt protein synthesis to their intrisic characteristics and to their sessile nature.

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Original Paper:

Castellano, M.M., Merchante, C. 2021. Peculiarities of the regulation of translation initiation in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 63, 102073. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2021.102073

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